# Applications

# Model order reduction of a fluid mechanical dynamical

# Civilian aircraft frequency limited model reduction, for vibration control

# Model construction from ground vibration tests

# Approximation of an hydro-electrical simulator

# Model order reduction of a fluid mechanical dynamical

For intensive simulation, optimisation and control of fluidic phenomena, it can be interesting discretising and linearising the fluid partial differential equations, describing the impact of a given geometry subject to fluid flow.

Such a discretisation can then lead to a large number of ordinary differential equations (up to millions of states), which is then, from a numerical point of view, complicated to treat and to manage. In this context, the MOR toolbox can be used to approximate the dynamical model with a low order one, simpler but still very accurate.

Indeed, from a very-large set of equations, the MOR toolbox allows generating a state-space model of reduced dimension, which behaviour from inputs to outputs remains accurate, and without any need of original model simulation.

From a model with half-milion of states, the approximation is obtained in a bundle of minutes on a standard computer. This approximation allows physician researchers and engineers to realise multiple tasks such as optimisation of control law, stability analysis and to compute time-domain responses (see`[IFAC LPVS]`

).
`[IFAC LPVS]`

C. Poussot-Vassal and D. Sipp, "Parametric reduced order dynamical model construction of a fluid flow control problem", in Proceedings of the Workshop on Linear Parameter Varying Systems (LPVS), Grenoble, France, October, 2015, pp. 133-138.

Engineers and researchers in fluid mechanics use MOR to simplify the simulation and the analysis of these dynamical models

# Civilian aircraft frequency limited model reduction, for vibration control

The civilian aircraft dynamical models are constructed by engineers, experts in flight mechanics, aero-elasticity, structure. These models are then used for different purpose such as simulation (of gust, loads, vibrations, ...), the analysis (of performances, NOx emissions...) or the control (of flight dynamics, loads, vibrations...).

In some cases, such as the vibrations control law synthesis, it is important to restitute the aircraft behaviour in a given frequency band, where the disturbances act (in this case, in low and medium frequencies). Indeed, reproducing the behaviour outside this frequency range of interest is useless and would be done at the price of larger complexity. The MOR toolbox allows specifying the frequency band of interest and to accurately reduce the model over this band.

From a large-scale state-space representation, the MOR toolbox allows contructing a reduced order model of reduced dimension, faithfull over the considered frequency range, defined by the user.

In the case of civilian aircraft, the approximation is obtained in only some seconds on a classical computer. This approximation allows then researchers and engineers, expert in control and aero-elasticity, to synthesize an anti-vibration controller, to analyse its stability, performances and robustness properties (see `[Springer]`

).

`[Springer]`

C. Poussot-Vassal, C. Roos, P. Vuillemin, O. Cantinaud and J-P. Lacoste, Chapter 11: "Control-oriented Aeroelastic BizJet Low-order LFT modeling", in Control-oriented modelling and identification: theory and practice, M. Lovera Eds., January, 2015, IET - Control Engineering Series 80 (Hardcover)

Aeronautic engineers, specilized in control, use MOR to simplify aero-elsatic models for control synthesis and control law optimisation

# Model construction from ground vibration tests

In aeronotical applications, for certification purpose, test engineers realize a large amount to real experimental tests (both on ground and on flight). These tests aims at validating the dynamical models, control laws, theoretical results, and to enrich their knowledge of the aircraft behaviour. During these tests, the aircraft is solicitated and excited, and many measurements are collected.

In most of the cases, these tests record hundreds of sensor measurements, positionated at different location of the aircraft (wing and fuselage). From the excitation signals and the collected outputs measurements, described in the frequency-domain, the MOR toolbox allows constructing an exact or approximated model of the aicraft dynamics, in a few seconds (on a standard laptop).

In the context of ground vibration tests, this model approximation/construction did both permit the test engineers and experts in aero-elastical modelling to obtain in a few second, the dynamical model that reproduces the experimental test, and then to validate their modelling methodology and model knowledge, as well as the benefit brought by the control law. Moreover, the generated models are compatible with the standard modal analysis tools traditionnally used in aeronautics (see `[IFASD]`

).

`[IFASD]`

C. Meyer, G. Broux, J. Prodigue, O. Cantinaud and C. Poussot-Vassal, "Demonstration of innovative vibration control on a Falcon Business Jet", in Proceedings of the International Forum on Aeroelasticity and Structural Dynamics (IFASD), Como, Italy, June, 2017.

Aeroelastic engineers use MOR to construct models from experimental ground vibration tests

# Approximation of an hydro-electrical simulator

Hydro-electrical modelling is done by engineers specialized in fluid flow dynamics. In many cases, this modelling can be done using a dedicated simulator, which takes into account many different dynamics, usually complicated to isolate.

These simulators can produce responses to input sollicitations. Based on these signals and the outputs measurements, one can use the MOR toolbox to construct an exact (or approximate) model of the channel, even if this latter is represented by complex and irrational functions.

In the context of hydro-electrical channels, this model approximation/construction allowed engineers obtaining models that are then utilisable by control specialists to design an output regulation controllers for the level and power regulation (see `[ECC]`

).

`[ECC]`

V. Dalmas, G. Robert, C. Poussot-Vassal, I. Pontes Duff and C. Seren, "From infinite dimensional modelling to parametric reduced order approximation: Application to open-channel flow for hydroelectricity", in Proceedings of the European Control Conference (ECC), Aalborg, Denmark, July, 2016, pp. 1982-1987.

Hydrolic engineers use MOR to simplify the models contained in their complex simulators